Language Learning Process and Gender Difference Implied from the Turn-Takings Used in EFL Student Conversation Club

Syaripa Nurul Ilmi, Susilo Susilo, Istanti Hermagustiana


This study aims at investigating the kinds of turn-taking mostly used by EFL learners, how the turn-takings are portrayed as a process of EFL learning, and how the EFL learners differ in making their turn-takings according to their gender. This study was qualitative in nature, using 10 members of English Club of English department students, Mulawarman University as the participants. The procedures of data collecting were video-tape recording observation and semi-structure interview. The data were analyzed by using conversational analysis and percentage frequencies. The result revealed that: 1) the kinds of turn-taking mostly used by the participants were adjacency pair and insertion sequence from the sequence type of turn-taking, almost all kinds turn-taking from the overlap turn-taking except the third party mediation, and other-repair and self-repair from the repair turn-taking; 2) all members of the English Club felt they acquired  their languages as they practiced them in either written and spoken communication; and 3) the female members dominated talk than the male ones.


gender differences, turn-taking, EFL learning, students’ conversation

Full Text:



Ardianto, P. (2016). Communication strategies in English Conversations. Journal of Foreign Language, Teaching & Learning, 1 (1): 16 -22.

Azhar, K.A.& Iqbal, N. (2018). Turn-taking and gender differences in language classroom. Journal of Nelta, 23 (1-2): 54 -67. DOI: 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23349. retrieved in:

Chalak, A. & Karimi, M. (2017). Analysis of turn taking and repair strategies among male and female Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Journal of Applied linguistics and language research, 4 (2): 1 -9.

Chen, W. (2017). The effect of conversation engagement on L2 learning opportunities. ELT Journal, 71 (3): 329–340,

Coates, J. (Ed.). (1998). Language and gender: A reader. Blackwell Publishing.

Cogo, Alessia (2007): Intercultural communication in English as a Lingua Franca: a case study. PhD thesis, King's College London.

Cook, G. (1989). Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Creswell, John W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluation Quantitative and Qualitative Research. New Jersey: Pearson Merril Prentice Hall.

Dewi, R. F., Suharsono, S., & Munir, A. (2018). Turn taking strategies and its relations to EFL learners’ personality and power in the interaction of English conversation class. ETERNAL. English, teaching, learning and research journal, 4 (2): 288 – 305. DOI:

Duncan, S. (1972). Some Signals and Rules for Taking Speaking Turns in Conversation.

Faizah, Izah & Kurniawan, E. (2016). A study of interruption and overlap in male-female conversation in the talk show Mata Najwa. Journal of Barista, 3 (1):25 -36

Firth, Alan. (1996). The discursive accomplishment of normality: on 'lingua franca' English and conversation analysis. Journal of Pragmatics 26, 237-259.

Firestone, J. (1974). Turn-taking Strategies and ‘Speech-Exchange Systems’. (Online). ( retrieved on August 6, 2017

Gramkow-Andersen, Karsten (2001): The Joint Production of Conversation. Turn-sharing and collaborative overlap in encounters between non-native speakers of English. Aalborg: Centre for Languages and Intercultural Studies Aalborg University.

Hamsia, W. & Saraswati, N. (2017). A study of turn taking used in radio talk show under the topic ‘gender equality and women’s empowerment’. TELL journal, 5 (2): 60 -70

House, Juliane (2002): "Developing pragmatic competence in English as a lingua franca". In Karlfried Knapp and Christiane Meierkord, eds., Lingua Franca Communication. Frankfurt am Main etc.: Peter Lang.

House, Juliane (2006): "Unity in Diversity: English as a lingua franca for Europe" In Constant Leung and Jennifer Jenkins (eds.): Reconfiguring Europe. The contribution of applied linguistics. London: Equinox

House, Juliane (2008): "(Im) politeness in English as a Lingua franca discourse" In Miriam Locher and Jürg Strässler (eds.): Standards and Norms in the English Language. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 351-366

Isenberg, H. M. (2008). The Organization of Conversation. Asian EFL Journal.

Kohonen, S. (2004). Turn-taking in Conversation: Overlaps and Interruption in Intercultural Talk. Association for French Language Studies. (Online). ( retrieved on August 1, 2017.

Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (1980). Discourse analysis in second language research. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.

Levinson, C. Steven. (1983). Pragmatics. London: Cambridge University Press.

Lodico, Marguerite Gm Spaulding, Dean T and Voegle, Khatrine H, (2010). Methods in Educational Research: From Theory to Practice. New York: Jossy- Bass Publiser.

Mehl, M. R., Vazire, S., Ramírez-Esparza, N., Slatcher, R. B., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2007). Are women really more talkative than men?. Science, 317(5834), 82-82.

Mey, J.L. (2001). Pragmatics. An Introduction. Second Edition. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publisher Inc.

Milliward, C. (1992). Applying Discourse Analysis in the Classroom with a Specific Focus on Teaching Discourse Markers. (Online). ( 1-3, retrieved on July1, 2017.

Napitupulu, S., & Siahaan, S. (2014). Turn taking of conversation (a case study of Marhata in traditional wedding ceremony of Batak Toba. Journal of Humanities and social science, 19 (5): 36 – 43.

Nursyamsi. (2007). Turn-taking Used in English Conversations. Makassar: Badan Penerbit UNM.

Rahman, A. Qashas. (2006). Turn-taking Mechanisms and Pragmatics in English Conversations. Makassar: Badan Penerbit UNM.

Sapabsri, O., Dhanesschaiyakupta, U., Thep-ackrapong, T., Phimswat, On-Usa. (2018). An analysis of gender and status affecting conversational interruptions. International Journal of Social Sciences, 4 (1): 257 – 271. DOI:

Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. and Jefferson, G. (1974). A Simplest Systematic for the Organization of Turn-Taking for Conversation. Retrieved on July 4, 2017

Silverman, D. (1998). Harvey Sacks. Social science & conversational analysis. Oxford University Press, New York

Sudjana, N. (2001). PenilaianHasil Proses BelajarMengajar. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosda karya.

Tannen, Deborah. (2005). Conversational Style. Analyzing Talk among Friends. 2nd Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ten Bosch, N Oostdijk, J.P. de Ruiter Durational aspects of turn-taking in spontaneous face-to-face and telephone dialogues. International Conference on Text Speech and Dialogue. (2004). Volume:3206, Publisher: Springer, Pages: 563–570

Ter Maat, K.P. Truong and D.K.J. Heylen. (2010). How turn-taking strategies influence users' impressions of an agent, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 6356, Springer Verlag, Berlin, ISBN 978 -3 -642-15891-9, pp. 441-453, 2010.

Wei-dong, Y (2007). Realizations of turn-taking in conversational interactions. English Department, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China. Journal vol 5, no 8 serial 47.

Wilson, M. & Wilson, T. (2005). An Oscillator Model of the Timing of Turn-taking. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review. (Online). ( retrieved on July 1, 2017.

Wolfram & Schilling-Estes. (2006). American English: Dialects and Variation. Wiley-Blackwell.

Zhu, Y. & Ruan, H., (2019). On Convergence in gender languages – An empirical study. International journal of Arts and Commerce, 8 (2): 1 – 13



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Contact us: DINAMIKA ILMU; Address: FTIK, IAIN Samarinda; Jl. H.A.M. Rifadin, Samarinda, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Email: