The Importance of Culture in Second and Foreign Language Learning

Sheeraz Ali, Bahram Kazemian, Israr Hussain Mahar


English has been designated as a source of intercultural communication among the people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A range of linguistic and cultural theories contribute meaningful insights on the development of competence in intercultural communication. The speculations suggest the use of communicative strategies focusing on the development of learners’ efficiency in communicating language through cultural context. However, the teaching of culture in communication has not been paid due importance in a number of academic and language settings of Pakistan and Iran. This assignment study indicates problems in view of teaching English as a medium of instruction in public sector colleges of interior Sindh, Pakistan and prescribed textbooks in Iranian schools. It also aims to identify drawbacks and shortcoming in prescribed textbooks for intermediate students at college level and schools. Therefore, the assignment study recommends integration of cultural awareness into a language teaching programme for an overall achievement of competence in intercultural communication.

Full Text:



Baxter, J. (1983). ESL for intercultural competence. An approach to intercultural communication training. In D. Landis & R.W. Brislin (Eds), Hand book of intercultural training, volume II: Issues in training methodology (pp. 290-324). New York: Pergamon Press.

Emitt, M. Pollock, J. & Komesaroff, L. (2003), Language and Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kelly, L.G. (1969), 25 Centuries of Language Teaching. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Kim, Y.Y. (1991). Intercultural communicative competence. In S. Ting – Toomey & F.Korzenny, Cross-cultural interpersonal communication (pp. 259-275). California: Sage Publications.

Lambert, R. (1999), Language and Intercultural Competence. In J.L. Bianco, A.J. Liddicoat & C. Crozet (Eds.), Striving for the Third Place: Intercultural competence through language education. (pp.65-72). Melbourne: Language Australia.

Martin, J.N. (1994), Intercultural Communication: A unifying concept for international education exchange. In G. Athen (Ed.), Learning across cultures. (pp. 9-29). Iowa: Nafsa.

Myron, W. Lustic & Koester, J. (2010), Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal communication across cultures. Pearson: USA.

Sapir, E. (1921), Language. Harcourt Brace: New York.

Schmidt, G. (2000), Teaching culture and language for specific purposes. In A.J. Liddicoat and C. Crozet (Eds.), Teaching languages and teaching culture. (pp. 131-140): Canberra: Applied Linguistics Association of Australia.

Spencer, D. H. & Hornby, A. S. (2010). Intermediate English Book One. Jamshoro: Sindh Textbook Board.

Taga, H.A. (1999), Sociology: An introduction. Ismail Brothers Publishers: Lahore.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 1819 times
PDF - 1591 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Contact us: DINAMIKA ILMU; Address: FTIK, IAIN Samarinda; Jl. H.A.M. Rifadin, Samarinda, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Email: